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Tuesday, 24 September 2019

CBSE released sample question for class 10th download the stuffs now || Learners Hobby

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The official CBSE release sample question paper and marking scheme for class 10 session 2019 - 20 for all subjects. The CBSE Board examination 2020 will be held in the month of February-March 2020. The CBSE Board Exam Date sheet will be released soon on the official website. The link of the CBSE Board Exam 2020 Sample Question Paper is also provided below for the reference of the students.

How to download -----
  1.  You need to click this DOWNLOAD button
  2. you are redirected to official cbse site
  3. Here all subject available in a chart
  4. You need to just select the subject and click on the link given
  5. Now your sample paper will start downloading in pdf file.
  6. After Downloading Enjoy Study!
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Monday, 13 May 2019

India - Monsoon Rains & Natural Vegetation || Learners Hobby

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                                                                   India - Monsoon Rains

    Generally the term 'monsoon' meaning season is applied to rain without reference to winds. Season of advancing monsoon is also known as the season of South-West monsoon or the rainy season. This season is marked by the onset and advance of monsoon. During this season,winds blow from both Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal towards the land. They carry moisture and as they strike the mountain barriers, they are forced to rise up. The vapour condenses and cause rainfall.
    The monsoon appears at different dates at different places. While kerala on West Coast is the first to receive rainfall (on 1st June), North-Western Rajasthan is the last to receive to receive rainfall (by around 15th July). The triangular shape of peninsular India and the Himalyan barriers deflect the winds from East to West. This position can best be understood with the help of the map. The North- East receives monsoon rains by around 5th June. The moisture-laden winds then go onwards and reach Delhi by around 15th June. Though there is some regularity, they are the most erratic type. When the winds fails to arrive or fail to shed moisture, drought is caused Indeed India is highly drought prone. However, most often excessive rainfall causes flood.
    The winds are greatly influenced by the relief and pressure conditions over land. The distribution of rainfall is highly uneven over the landmass. North-Eastern parts on south-facing slopes (Assam, Arunachal, Meghalaya and Sikkim), western parts of Western Ghats-including the Coastal Plains and the deltaic region of West Bengal-recieve heavy rainfall of more than 200 cm in a year.
    Retreat means 'withdrawal' but like forced withdrawal of army in a battlefield, known as retreat, the winds too are forced to withdraw from the Indian subcontinent. The retreat begins around September 24 when the winds retreat from Haryana and Punjab. The season lasts until end of November when winds withdraw from the whole sub-continent.
                  Causes: Changes in temperature and pressure conditions as well as over the interior of the continent and water bodies.
   Retreating season from Oct-Nov is also marked by cyclones over Bay of Bengal.

                                                                                Natural Vegetation
    The natural plants of a region includes a variety of species and is collectively known as flora. With variety of flora in our surrounding, India would have been well- placed in this respect. The population of India has risen several fold. As such there is heavy pressure on forest, the habitat of plant and animal life. The vegetation of India is generally categorised into Evergreen, Deciduous, Thorn, Tidal and Montane types.
    Tropical Rainforests have evergreen trees which don't have any particular season of shedding leaves. This region receives heavy rainfall of more than 200 cm in a year. The trees grow tall and have a layering arrangements.
    Tropical Forests have trees which shed their leaves during a particular season. In order to conserve their moisture, trees shed leaves in dry season. Fresh leaves begin to grow in the onset of rainy season. These forests are also called Monsoon Foresrts. The rainfall is generally between 75 and 200 cms. Deciduous forests are the dominant vegetation type of Tropical Monsoon Climate. Dry Deciduous forests are found in regions of 50 and to 100 cm rainfall.

    Thorny forests are found in areas having annual rainfall of less than 50 cm. Short trees like Babool and Kikar are found in these forests. Thorns are a short of protection to preserve and to discourage grazing animals from eating them.
    Tidal Forests are also known as Mangrove Forests (or locally, as Sunderbans) in West Bengal. The Sunderbans are also called because, in the local dialect, it means 'beautiful forest' (Sundervan). Mangrove trees survive in both fresh and salt water. On high mountains like Himalayas, vegetation, changes with height. At ground level, Tropical Evergreen forest are found which change in the same manner as does the vegetation from equator to poleward.
    Montane forests refers to the type of vegetation found in the mountain vision. e.g., Himalayas vegetation. Temperature and rainfall decreases with altitude. The higher attitude has alpine and coniferous vegetation while the Shivalik region has deciduous vegetation.

Tuesday, 16 April 2019

India - Climate, Vegetation, Wildlife, Pressure and Temperature || Learners Hobby

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                                                    India- Climate vegetation and wildlife
    India has a great variety in climate, as also in relief. The climate of India ranges from dry desert type in Rajasthan, to humid climate near sea coasts and wet climate in Meghalaya in the North-East. In spite of great local variations, the climate of India is broadly described as Tropical Monsoon Type Climate.
    India is a tropical country. South India lies closer to equator. Three factors responsible for this broad categorisation of climate are:
(1) the Tropic of Cancer divides India into two equal halves. While the southern part lies in the tropical zone, the northern part is in sub-tropical zone.
(2) India lies at the head of the Indian Ocean. The moist winds blowing over the Indian Ocean blow towards the mainland.
(3) The Himalayas protect our country from cold polar winds blowing from the north and impart a distinctly tropical touch to the climate of India.
(4) Relief: The general relief of India landmass is more pronounced due to altitude and general direction of mountain ranges. The Himalayas in west-east direction. It is linked to Purvanchal in the north-east that lies in the north-south direction. The Western Ghats are in north-south direction.
    India experiences regional differences in climate on account of two factors
(1) Upper air currents. These are known as jer streams blowing in a narrow zone over Northern Plains in winter and then shift over Tibet in summer
(2) India lies in Trade Wind zone. Trade winds have actually created Rajasthan desert. The coastal areas experience maritime climate whereas the interior parts of the Northern Plains have continental climate.
                                              INDIA-PRESSURE AND TEMPERATURE (JANUARY)
    Air has temperature and pressure. Dry and wet bulb thermometer is used for measurement of temperature in Celcius degrees. Pressure is measured by and instrument called barometer in millibars. Both are important influencing factores for precipitation and climate.
    Temperature and pressure have inverse relationship between them. Low temperature during winter in Northern Plains causes high pressure areas on land because winds always blow from high pressure areas to low pressure areas. Winds from the Northern plains blow towards the seas in winter and in summer in the reverse direction. Similarly, the temperature is very high over warm air rises up, creating an area of low pressure. This causes moisture-laden air from the sea to blow towards land, i.e., onshore breeze.

    Temperature and pressure are plotted on maps with the help of isotherms and isobars.
    Pressure below 998 mb is regarded as low and that of above 1000 mb as high. The isobars in January have decreasing value from around 1018 mb to around 1014 mb on the mainland of India.
    High and low pressure conditions may be closer to each other or many hundred kilometers away from each other. Isobars always provide valuable information to students and weathermen regarding the strength and direction of winds.
    In winter, dry trade winds are dominant. N.E. Trade winds blow from west to east. The Himalayas barrier and Purvanchal hills may redirect these winds towards the sea. While blowing over Bay of Bengal they pick up moisture and cause rainfall in the Coromandel Coast.    

Sunday, 31 March 2019


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    Divisions of landmass based on physiographi is helpful for many economic activities like agriculture, exploration of minerals, soil and flow of rivers. Related to it is a geological structure.
    The major physiographic divisions of India are - Great Mountains of the Peninsular Plateau, the Coastal Plains and the Islands.
    The Northern Mountains are made up of both sedimentary and metamorphic rocks. The central part of Indian landmass is made of hard igneous rocks; the Chhotanagpur Plateau has been formed of lava sheets. The Southern Peninsula is the oldest landmass containing hard rocks such as basalt. Like the Northern Plains, the coastal Plains also have thin alluvial cover.

                                                                          PENINSULAR INDIA
    The Plateau of Peninsular India formed some fifty million years ago die to accumulation of thick layers of basaltic lava, covers an area of about 65,509 sq. kms.
    A long narrow section between Malwa Plateau and Deccan Plateau drained by Narmada and Tapi is known as the Rift Valley. It was depressed by faulting millions of years ago. As a result Narmada and Tapi flow towards Arabian Sea and join it in the Gulf of Khambhat.

    The whole plateau is bordered in the west and east by hill ranges known as Western and Eastern Ghats. The Western Ghats are relatively higher in the south and include a number of hills whose average height is 1,200 metres, but peaks may rise to 2,500 metres. The Eastern Ghats are frequently broken into small hills by rivers such as Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kavery.
    The two Ghats converge at the Nilgiris. In the Nilgiris, the highest peak is Doda Betta (2,670 m).
    The Coastal Plains lie to  the west and east of the Western and Eastern Ghats respectively. The Western Coastal Plains has the maximum width of 65km but in the South it is about 100 km. Besides the Ganga-Brahmaputra delta in the north, Mahanadi, Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri also make deltas on the east coast.
                                                                 GIS AND MAPPING
    With the advent of computers, Geographic Information System(GIS) has  become a tool in accurate mapping. You might have navigated google maps on computer and come to know its usefulness.
    Along with computers, satellites and colour photography have opened new vistas of opportunities. The main tools of Remote Sensing for location an object by means of a sensor are : Satellite Remote Sensing, Colour Imagery Often false colours are used to depict a particular profile of an image. It has been drawn using GIS as the main tool.

    Satellite colour images were used by Geological Survey of India which were analysed to draw this map as a part of India. Satellite imagery was provided by NASA (USA) as well as Indian sources. The map gives a detailed information about folding and faulting on account of frequent earthquakes in the region. GIS uses many other tools for drawing of maps, collection information and locating places.
    Global Positioning System (GPS) is like a hand held remote for locating information on a maps. It uses broadcast signals which are captured and analysed by the hand-held remote. It was used by terrorists in 29/11 for bombing the locations and targets in India. On computer, GPS can be used even by untrained students to locate information on maps.
    The Indian Space Research Organisation has developed its own satellite based communication and navigation system. ISRO has also launched Indian Remote Sensing Satellite(IRS).

  If you want to learn part 1 - All about India Part 1 Political and Physical || Learners Hobby